Prime number generator using Sieve of Eratosthenes
This method of finding primes has been around for a long time. It's named after a Greek mathematician from the third century BCE.
Instead of testing numbers through division, the sieve produces primes using only addition. This works by using connected coroutines each of which lets through numbers that are not multiples of the prime it has been given.
At the base of the chain is a generator that provides all of the numbers we wish to test. This generator gives us our first prime, which is 2.
We then place a generator in front of that which will check whether numbers are divisible by 2 or not. This will tell us that 3 is our next prime. A new generator placed at the front now checks for division by 3. We continue to build this chain up one by one. When the current sieve chain produces a number that number is a prime (because it's not divisible by any before it) and we add a generator that sieves out multiples of that prime.
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33  #include <felspar/coro/generator.hpp> #include <cstdint> #include <iostream> using integer = std::uint64_t; namespace { 
First of all we need all of the numbers that we want to check. We're going to start at 2 because 1 isn't really a prime.
38 39 40  felspar::coro::generator<integer> numbers(integer upto) { for (integer number{2}; number <= upto; ++number) { co_yield number; } } 
The sieve coroutine checks if the values that come out from lower down in the sieve are multiples of the prime this part is going to check. Because numbers coming in from the sieve before this keep increasing we need to only remember the last number we checked against.
47 48 49  felspar::coro::generator<integer> sieve(integer prime, felspar::coro::generator<integer> sieve) { for (auto checking = prime; auto value = sieve.next();) { 
If the number we're checking against is too low then keep adding the prime we're checking until.
54  while (checking < *value) { checking += prime; } 
We're now in one of two things situations:
 The number is equal to the value, in which case the value is a multiple of this prime and we must fetch the next value from the sieve below us.
 The number is larger than the value we're checking which means that the value is potentially prime as far as this check is concerned.
If we're in the second situation then this is certainly a prime if this is the last part of the sieve, or potentially a prime if this is lower down in the sieve, so we yield it to the next layer up.
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78  if (checking > *value) { co_yield *value; } } } } int main() { integer found{}; for (auto primes = numbers(1'000'000); auto prime = primes.next();) { 

All numbers that come out of the
primes
sieve are primeLC.82 std::cout << *prime << ' '; ++found;
We have to add that prime value to the primes
sieve so that
multiples of it also get checked
88  primes = sieve(*prime, std::move(primes)); 
We actually only need to keep adding the prime to the primes
sieve
as long as the square of the prime is less than the top value we're
checking. This is a significant optimisation and is implemented in
primes3optimised.cpp
95 96 97 98  } std::cout << "\nFound " << found << " primes\n"; return 0; } 